Waste and zero-waste living

 

©The Green Hub

 

Waste. Something we, at Taste Before You Waste, do not like. This week’s blogpost takes a look, not just at food waste, but at all consumer waste. Learn more about waste-free living and find tips & tricks on how to reduce your personal waste.

 

Waste streams  and their disposal

 

Let’s dive into the bin. What is waste? Which waste streams are there? How are each of the waste streams treated?

Waste streams are the routes that waste pass through from the source to:

  • Recovery. Materials of a product are replaced so the product gets another useful purpose;
  • Recycling. Converting waste into reusable materials;
  • Disposal. Removing, destroying or storing waste.

In 2016, 5.0 tonnes of waste was generated per EU inhabitant (Eurostat, 2018). The EU upholds a ‘polluter pays’ principle. This means that for instance the producers of materials have to bear to cost of polluting practices at the production stage. These polluting practices may entail damage to protected species, damage to water or soil damage. By putting a price tag on polluting practices for the producer, the cost reflects in the price that the consumer eventually pays. So, indirectly the consumer also pays for pollution.

 

The way waste is treated varies across categories. Presently only 44 per cent of all municipal waste is recycled or composted (Multimedia Centre European Parliament, 2018). ‘Mixed ordinary waste’ has the lowest recycling rate of all the categories (15%) (Bourguignon, 2015). What is not recycled, is disposed, which unfortunately represents an enormous loss of resources, energy, land, production labour etcetera. On top of that, waste disposal management can have severe environmental impacts. Incineration, for instance, can result in the emission of air pollutants (Eurostat, 2018). EU policy is now geared towards reducing the environmental- and health related impacts of waste and improving the efficiency of resource-use. Over the longer term, policies aim at reducing the amount of waste and promoting waste as a resource: recycling!

 

A policy brief published the 4th of March this year reported on the need to reshape our economy towards climate-neutral and circular. This policy brief prescribes that the percentage of recycled waste should be increased up to 65 percent and the amount of waste that reaches landfills should drop to below 10 percent. Landfills are sites where waste is disposed underground or on the land. In 2016, in the EU, 45.5 percent of waste was landfilled (Eurostat, 2018). The problem with landfills is that they are often so tightly packed that all oxygen is squeezed out, causing organic waste to not compose properly. This landfilling solid waste creates carbon dioxide and methane that can seep out of landfill. Both are greenhouse gasses: they trap heat in the atmosphere which causes global warming (Themelis & Ulloa, 2006). Besides that, landfill leachate (the liquid that percolates through solid material) allows pollutants from the leachate to contaminate groundwater (Lee & Jones-Lee, 2011). So: landfills take up a lot of land and space and can cause air, water and soil pollution.

 

Plastic, not-so-fantastic

 

Finally, in thinking of waste stream management, plastic deserves its own paragraph. The world produces more than 300 million tons of plastic each year. The problem with plastics is that only a fraction of that is recycled: only nine percent of the global production (Geyer, Jambeck & Lavender, 2017). 12 percent of that is incinerated, and 79 percent ends up in landfills or the natural environment. To paint a picture for you: think of one large garbage truck full of plastic that every minute of everyday, dumps its entire holding capacity into the ocean (UN, 2017). If our waste management strategies remain unchanged, by 2050 about 12.000 metric tons of plastic will be in landfills and our natural environment.

 

 

 

 

 

The consumer as part of the solution

 

Unnecessary packaging, unclear or absent waste separation systems or malfunctioning waste management are major contributors to the pollution of our natural environment. These take place on the macro level: institutions decide for the consumer. However, as a consumer you have more power than you think! So let’s consider the role that us individuals have in creating positive impact. And this is where a zero waste lifestyle enters the stage! A great contributor of keeping matter out of landfill is to keep trash out of the trash bin, simple as that. So that’s what we’ll do. What follows now is a beginners’ guide to a zero-waste lifestyle. With easy-to-apply tips and tricks that pave the way for anyone to appropriate a life with less waste.

 

The five waste-free principles

We’ll start with the five principles of personal waste-management:

  1. Refuse. Neglect the things that you don’t need in your life. Refusing goes beyond saying ‘no’ to any marketing folder that is pushed in your hands. Also refuse to take to-go cups, fast fashion, plastic straws and plastic bags. Basically it means minimizing consumption of the things that you have become used to in your daily life. It’s all about the details here, so be mindful of the things you use. Do you really need that keyhanger souvenir while there are still three lying around in your drawer, probably broken into two before they made it to your home country? Probably not. Free toys that come with your groceries? No thank you! That standard pair of plastic cutlery with your to-go meal? Dare to say no and free yourself of useless materials. Naturally, it will leave you with more time and space to spend on the things that DO matter.
  2. Reduce. Reduce what you can’t refuse. This step helps you to focus on the things you need in your day-to-day life. These can be cleaning products, cosmetics, gadgets, anything! Look at all the things you have in your home and get rid of the unnecessary. Sell, hand out to the second-hand store, recycle or give away. Congratulations; you’ve just made the choice to own quality over quantity and life experience over material goods.
  3. Reuse. There are certain things you need when going to the (super)market. Plastic bags are not one of them. Instead, use a canvas bag or containers for your fruits and vegetables, which you can reuse. The same goes for reusable containers to store your food in the fridge, instead of the wasteful plastic cling film to cover yesterday’s late night pizza.
  4. Rot. Composting is a process in which organic waste changes into soil conditioner. The end product: compost, is rich in nutrients and can be used in farming, agriculture etcetera. Whether you live on a farm or in an apartment on the seventh floor, there are always composting options. Keep your organic waste separate and get informed on the composting options in your neighbourhood. Many cities have wormhotels, where hundreds of worms create high-quality, nutrient-rich compost out of your organic waste. Here you can get rid of your organic waste and contribute to the production of nutrient-dense soil conditioner. Via https://wormenhotel.nl/kaart/ you can search for the worm hotel nearby, or start your own worm hotel.
  5. Recycle. There will unfortunately be some products that you use and have to dispose. Always check your municipality’s website to know about the recycling policies.

 

The information that is shared here was mostly derived from desk research. But to actually know what it is like to live waste-free, we will only find out if we go out and try it! So: starting the first of May, me and two others will embark on a waste-free journey that will last one full month. We will test-run all tips, tricks and strategies for a waste-free lifestyle and log on the challenges and everything that strikes us during the journey. During the TBYW summer festival we hope to see you during an interactive session during which all ins and outs of minimizing personal consumer waste will be discussed. But: we don’t want to do this alone! Do you feel like taking on a challenge? Join! Send an e-mail to HannekeM@tastebeforeyouwaste.org and let’s do this, together.

 

Additionally, TBYW organizes a series of workshops that help you on the way to a waste-free life. Here’s the overview of all the workshops that will be given, starting the 30th of April.

 

Date (dd.mm.yyyy) Theme Topic
30.04.2019 Kitchen hygiene Reusable wipes

All-purpose cleaner

Dish soap

14.05.2019 Personal hygiene/protection Toothpaste

Deodorant

Sunscreen

21.05.2019 Soap making Coffee scrub

Bar soap

04.06.2019 Menstrual cycle Menstrual cup

Reusable pads

cramp oil

11.06.2019 Personal hygiene/protection Eye liner

Bronzing powder

Make up remover

 

Stay tuned in on TBYW’s social media channels to find more information soon. We hope to see you at the workshops and don’t hesitate to get in touch and join us in the waste-free month challenge!

 

References:

  • Bourguignon, D. (2015) Understanding waste streams. Treatment of specific waste. EPRS | European Parliamentary Research Service. Members’ Research Service
  • Geyer, R., Jambeck, J. R. & Lavender. K. (2017) Production, use and fate of all plastics ever made. Science Advances, Vol 3 No 7.  
  • Lee, F. G. Lee-Jones, A. (2011) Solid Waste Management: US EPA Lined-Landfill Approach Not Reliable for Protecting Public Health and Environmental Quality.
  • Media Centre European Parliament, 2018/06/04, Circular economy: Europe cleans up its act.  Retrieved from: https://multimedia.europarl.europa.eu/en/circular-economy-europe-cleans-up-its-act_N01-PUB-180504-CIRC_ev, at 09/04/2019
  • Themelis, N. J. & Ulloa, P. A. (2006) Methane generation in landfills. Science Direct, Renewable Energy 32 (2007) 1243–1257

I consider myself to be an environmentalist.

At the age of twelve I found myself in my first environmental march holding a banner over my head and shouting slogans quite shyly. Since then I have been a member in a number of environmental NGOs and participated in events and clean ups. In my daily life I’m loyal to my tote bag and avoid using plastic, I use public transport or my trusted fiets, buy chemical free products, opt for fairtrade and organic products when possible, and most of my meals are plant-based. When elections come along I thoroughly look at environmental policies and projects in manifestos. Also, nature is my place to get away and recharge, there is nothing quite like a stroll surrounded by lush greenery or a dip in the blue sea to make me feel at peace again.

© Oxford Dictionaries

Environmentalism is the philosophy that our environment is worth protecting and we must be involved in its preservation. An environmentalist is then the individual who is concerned about protecting the environment. What I described previously is a very personal form of environmentalism and I’m sure that there are many out there who look at it and think, ‘Well, that’s not how I’d do it!’ I guess there are many different ways in which we can be environmentalists this is depends on our life style and choices, as we try to forge a greener path in an unsustainable system we’re currently experiencing.

The principal reason why we should all be environmentalist is because we are human. We inherently share this common need and responsibility towards the natural environment. This is because we depend on resources and all their services for our own existence, so really the well-being of the environment is also our own. It is only our own failure to not realise this. All the comforts that we have become accustomed to, and the lifestyles which we just think of as normal would not be possible without all these resources. Being an environmentalist is simply the recognition of one’s place and role within this ecosystem and its sustainability.

 

 

Earth day is a commemoration of this common commitment to safeguard our environment from deterioration and degradation. This day serves as an annual reminder of our everyday responsibility as individuals and communities to honour the natural environment in which we live (Earth Day Network, 2019).

 

 

The origins of this day are set in a time of civil protests and growing ecological awareness. In 1969 founder Gaylord Nelson, then a U.S. Senator from Wisconsin came up with the idea to set up a national day focusing on the environment. This came about after the massive oil spill in Santa Barbara, which was then the largest oil spill by waters the USA had suffered, killing birds, sea creatures and fouling coastlines. On the 22nd of April in 1970, twenty million Americans took to the streets to protest the negative impacts of one hundred and fifty years of industrialization and demanded a healthy sustainable environment for their communities (Earth Day Network, 2019).

 

Earth Day 1970 gave voice to that emerging consciousness, channelling the energy of the anti-war protest movement and putting environmental concerns on the front page.

Today over one billion people participate in various events around the globe. People march, sign petitions, organise clean-ups, meet with their elected officials, plant trees. Corporations and governments use it to make pledges and announce sustainability measures. Faith leaders even connect Earth Day with protecting God’s greatest creations, humans, biodiversity and the planet that we all live on (Earth Day Network, 2019).

 

These event spread over 193 countries are coordinated by the Earth Day Network (EDN) . The network’s aim is to broaden that which we understand by the environment, to include our health and communities. This richer definition draws the link between the earth’s and humans’ wellbeing, to redirect greater efforts towards the preservation of the natural environment for a common benefit. The Earth Day Network does this by creating civil engagement at multiple civil levels and working with those who are most vulnerable to the impacts of climate change.

Diversifying – Educating – Activating

Each year Earth day puts up a lens to a specific environmental issue so the global population can take a closer look and understand. Earth day 2019 will bring to focus the global species decline, with this year’s theme being ‘Protect our species.’  Presently the earth is experiencing the greatest rate of extinction since the dinosaurs, the difference is that this rapid extinction is a result of human activity (Earth Day Network, 2019). Mainly through our unsustainable agriculture, deforestation, habitat loss, pesticides, pollution, poaching and trafficking of species, and impacts of climate change. While extinction of up to 5 species a year is considered normal, scientists estimate that we are now losing species at 1,000 to 10,000 times the normal rate. For more facts on this, click here.

 

 

 

 

 

 

This rapid species extinction presents a risk as it jeopardizes the balance upon which nature thrives. By wiping out other species we are abolishing our chance for a flourishing and sustainable planet. There is good news though, as this extinction rate can still be slowed down, and many of our declining, threatened and endangered species can still recover however this requires for us to collectively demand immediate action.

With this year’s theme the Earth Day Network aims to

  • Educate and raise awareness about the accelerating rate of extinction of millions of species and the causes and consequences of this phenomenon.
  • Achieve major policy victories that protect broad groups of species as well as individual species and their habitats.
  • Build and activate a global movement that embraces nature and its values.
  • Encourage individual actions such as adopting plant-based diet and stopping pesticide and herbicide use.

What the first Earth Day back in the 1970’s, was able to do was to bring together people from all walks of life. The realization of the common threat but also the collective potential to come up with solutions and address these environmental issues acted as an impetus to the modern global environmental movement. People are the heart and the conscience of this movement, and it is people who see that environmental issues are taken by their representatives and acted upon. So, all of us; professionals, pensioners, students, and all others are all environmentalists in our ways.

However, if you feel that you could use with some pointers, the Earth Day Network provides some simple Earth Day Tips!

Sources

Earth Day Network

How the 1969 Santa Barbara oil spill sparked Earth day

 

World Disco Soup Day 2019

Afbeeldingsresultaat voor fill bellies not bins

Code Orange! © Pebble Magazine

The 27th of April is the day that for 364 days a year, the Dutch are patiently waiting for: Kingsday. On this day the streets turn orange, people awake from their hibernation, crawl out of their caves, pet the dust off of their summer jackets and hit the streets where orange flags, beers, music and flea markets await.

Taste Before You Waste will not let this day go by unnoticed. We will join forces with the Slow Food Youth Network, Café de Ceuvel, Food Circle, Sapient Social & Environmental Enterprises, Guerilla Kitchen Amsterdam and Healthy and Affordable and turn Kingsday into World Disco Soup Day.

What?

World Disco Soup Day started seven years ago in Berlin as a protest soup where 8000 people were given sous from rescued products (Slow Food, n.d.). The protest soups soon began to spread to ask attention for a pressing problem: our failing food system. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization, over one-third of all the global production of food for human consumption is wasted (around 1.3 billion tons annually) while at the same time, 840 million people suffer from hunger, globally (FAO, 2015). Not only does the actual food go to waste, also think of all the energy, land, water, seeds and labour that is lost!

 

 

The idea of organizing a protest soup was soon picked up by the Slow Food Youth Network in Brazil. The Slow Food Youth Network, a non-profit organisation that fights for a more fair and sustainable food system, took on the concept and organized a national Disco Soup Day. The snowball effect that followed caused the World Disco Soup Day to grow out to be one of the biggest internationally organized events that fight food waste and in the extension of that; impacts of climate change.

All over the world, youth addresses the problem of food waste by collecting food that would be wasted but was still perfectly fine to use. Delicious soups were created from the rescued food, and a disco element was added. Because why not celebrate that wasted food actually tastes great, while collectively contributing to the battle against food waste?

 

 

World Disco Soup Day 27th April, 2019

This Kingsday-edition, the collective of organisations that were listed above will dance to the music of DJ Stefnitz, listen to the jokes of MC Benji B and taste the soups made by you, the welcome guests! Join the event and eat the soups, all for free.

To prepare for our kingsday-edition of World Disco Soup Day we need your help and ask you to take part in our #soupchallenge. Share one of your favorite soup recipes and tag #verspillingsvrij #wdsd19 #sfyn #samentegenvoedselverspilling #votewithyourfork #fillbelliesnotbins @sfynamsterdam @slowfoodyouthnetwork @deceuvel @tbyw.  

We recommend you to use as many rescued vegetables as possible and your soup might be the inspiration for the soup of the day at World Disco Soup Day. So: post your recipe, post a photo of the dish and insert the tags and if your soup is chosen, it will be made and served to all the party people at the Ceuvel!  

 

We are super excited for this day full of great, rescued food and dancing. Join use and let’s get wasted!

DIY Environmental Heroïsm! This post will give you the best recipes with the least environmental exploitation, so you can sustainably eat your way to 2050. Be a true hero in the kitchen and try them!

 

The recipes in this post use the guidelines of the planetary health diet that was coined January this year by the Lancet Commission. The Lancet Commission is a group of over 30 scientist that published a report on how we can sustainably feed the estimated 10 billion people that inhabit the planet by 2050. The ideal way to cut greenhouse gas emission and sustain a healthy planet is to leave out animal products such as meat, dairy, fish and eggs as much as possible. Other things to take into account in filling your shopping basket in a sustainable way is to choose seasonal and local products.  More about this you can read in 16th March’ blog post: the Sustainable Future Diet.

 

The recipes represent some beautiful products which have a high score regarding environmental performance. The calculation of environmental performance considers: the use of fossil fuels, contribution to climate change (Co2- emission), land use and waterstress. Enjoy!

 

#1 Purple soup

 

The star of the show is the red cabbage, creating an amazing purple-coloured soup. Traditionally used in the Dutch cuisine as a side dish with apple and cloves to pair with mashed potato (we’re a simple people 😉 ), this time prepared as a fresh soup that requires very little ingredients and is easy to make! The vinegar brings out an amazing zinginess and the apple uplifts the soup with its fresh, sweet flavour. Don’t be afraid to use too much (preferably freshly crushed) black pepper!

Ingredients (serves four):

  • 1 red cabbage, roughly chopped. Grown on farmland in the Netherlands, energy-use for production is low. 
  • 1 large apple, cut in cubes. Apples, either from Argentina, Brazil or Chile, are grown on farmland and shipped per boat, to keep emissions low.
  • 2 red onions, roughly chopped
  • 200 ml plant-based milk.  I used almond milk but oat- or soy milk will do too. Go for the unsweetened one. Almond milk scores low in kg emissions per 200 ml glass, and low in land use but relatively high in water use. Soy and oat milk have the lowest environmental impact. (Poore & Nemecek, 2018)
  • 400 ml vegetable stock
  • 50 ml vinegar.   I used balsamic vinegar but apple cider vinegar does the job as well. Use what you have in your cupboard.
  • salt
  • black pepper
  •  2 tablespoons oil

Cooking method:

Heat the oil in a saucepan over medium heat. Once the oil is hot, add the onion and cabbage. Add salt and pepper and keep stirring. Add the apple. Put the lid on for 3 minutes to let the ingredients soften. Add some more pepper. Next up we’ll add the liquids. Add vinegar and vegetable stock to the saucepan and stir until everything infuses. Then add the almond milk and stir. Now leave the lid on for another 15 minutes until the cabbage is soft. Depending on how small you cut the cabbage it will cook faster. Once the cabbage is soft, Use a blender or hand-held blender to blend everything. Optionally, add green leaves (cress works well) and a dash of almond milk to garnish. Enjoy!

#2 Sweet potato and dark, leafy green vegetable mash with vegan gravy and roasted hazelnuts

 

Another super easy, impossible-to-go-wrong, nutritious recipe. The gravy is incredibly flavoursome and together with the roasted nuts makes up for a full, hearty meal.

 

Ingredients (serves four):

  • 1 kg sweet potato. Sweet potato comes from the US. However, as it is grown on farmland and shipped by boat, the environmental footprint remains low.
  • 400 gr winter purslane/spinach/turnip tops. Pick the greens you like! Winter purslane and turnip tops aren’t your regular vegetables but that gives you all the more reason to try! In April they are in season in the Netherlands and they give an amazing nutty, fresh taste to your vegetable mash and have great health benefits.
  • 100 gr hazelnuts, roasted and chopped. Out of all the nuts the hazelnut and walnut are the most environmentally sustainable as they are sourced in Europe, from the Mediterranean area (Turkey, Spain, Italy) (Source: https://www.aboutnuts.com/nl/encyclopedie/hazelnoten/)
  • 200 ml almond milk. 
  • 50 gr plant-based margarine
  • 2 tablespoons oil

The gravy:

  • 1 onion
  • 2 cloves garlic, finely diced
  • 3 tablespoons corn starch/flour
  • 3 tablespoons soy sauce
  • 6 tablespoons water
  • 1 tablespoon mustard
  • 1 teaspoon (smoked) paprikapowder
  • 1 teaspoon ginger powder
  • 1 teaspoon corianderseed, crushed
  • ½  teaspoon curcuma
  • ½ teaspoon pepper

Cooking method:

Roast the nuts in a dry pan over medium heat. Whirl them around until the skin darkens on all sides. Turn off the heat and set aside to cool down.

 

Peel the sweet potatoes and cut them into chunks (Zero Waste Tip: wash the skin before you peel it and deep fry the peeled skins. Let cool until they are crispy and enjoy them as a pre-cooking snack!). Boil the sweet potatoes in a large pot with plenty of water and some salt. Once the water is cooking, set the timer at 15 minutes.

 

Meanwhile, prepare the gravy by heating oil in a small saucepan. Add the finely cut garlic and onion and let the onion/garlic juices induce in the oil on low heat. Once the onion/garlic start changing color, add little bits of the water. Then, add the cornstarch/flour and stir well for about 3 minutes. The sauce will now thicken slowly. Add more water if it gets too thick, add more cornstarch if the sauce is too thin. Add the rest of the ingredients while stirring, until it has the desire thickness. Add more salt/pepper to taste.

 

Once the sweet potatoes are cooked (check with a fork), drain the pan and keep a little bit of the starchy cooking water aside. Add the margarine and almond milk to the drained sweet potatoes. Mash the potatoes. Add your greens while mashing the potatoes more. Add some of the starchy draining water until it has reached the desired creaminess. Heat on a low heat while stirring; once there are no more lumps of potato it’s finished. Serve, put the gravy on top, add the roasted nuts and optionally top with mustard. Enjoy!

 

#3 Cauliflower and tempeh curry

 

The cauliflower is a true hero: it’s so versatile and tastes great. Here’s an exotic curry to warm you up on the rainy days that might linger throughout April. Tempeh is a product made of fermented soy beans and serves as an amazing, nutritious, protein-rich alternative for meat. In this recipe the tempeh is marinated to perfection and with its crunchy bite it’s the best sidekick of the warming, soft and creamy cauliflower curry.

 

Ingredients (serves four):

  • 1 cauliflower, cut into roses. Produced in France on farmland and transported by truck which leaves a relatively low environmental footprint
  • 500 gr potato, cubed. 
  • 2 onions, diced
  • 2 cloves garlic, finely diced
  • 2×2 cm block ginger, finely diced
  • 200 gr tomato puree
  • 1 can coconut milk
  •  1 block (400gr) tempeh
  • 400 ml vegetable stock
  • 2 tablespoons oil
  • 2 tablespoons currypowder
    • Make it yourself by mixing:2 tablespoons cumin2 tablespoons corianderseeds2 tablespoons curcumapowder

      1 ½ tablespoon cardemompowder

      ½ tablespoon cinnamon powder

      ½ teaspoon cayenne pepper

      optional: ½ teaspoon chili powder

The marinade:

  • Soy sauce sweet
  • Soy sauce regular
  • 1 tablespoon sunflower oil
  • ½ tablespoon sesame oil
  • 1 tablespoon lime juice
  • 1 tablespoon tomato puree
  • 1 tablespoon agave/rice syrup. You can make your own sugar sirup by mixing 1 tablespoon of sugar with some water, and heating this in a saucepan on low heat. Stir until the sugar dissolves
  • ½ teaspoon paprika powder
  • ½ teaspoon cumin powder
  • 1 clove garlic, finely diced
  • chili flakes, add to taste

Cooking method:

Start with the marinade. Cut the tempeh in slices of about ½ cm thick. Mix all the ingredients of the marinade together in a flat-surface tray or plate. put the tempeh in there and mix it around. Set aside in the fridge. Set it for at least 30 minutes. The longer you leave it, the better the flavours will marinade.

 

Heat oil in a pan and add the onion, garlic and ginger. Slowly let the base induce in the oil. Add the currypowder and stir well. If it sticks to the bottom of the pan, add little bits of water. Add the tomato puree and stir well. Now add the cauliflower and potato and stir until they are covered in the mix. Add the vegetable stock and the can of coconut milk. bring it to a boil and let it simmer on a low heat for about 30 minutes. All the vegetables should be covered in liquid. If not, add more water.

 

While the curry is simmering, take the tempeh out of the fridge. Heat oil in a frying pan. Wait until the oil is hot, then add the tempeh. Fry on both sides for a few minutes, until the marinade turns brown and the tempeh gets crunchy.

 

Once the curry is finished, serve it, put the tempeh on top and garnish with fresh koriander or any other fresh herbs, to taste. Enjoy!

 

#4 Key Lime Pie

 

We couldn’t leave the dessert out, of course. In April, the lime usually originates from Brazil, where the Brazilian sun worked it’s magic before it was shipped to Europe by boat which leaves the environmental footprint to remain low. We’ll use this lovely citrus fruit to make the soft filling that goes over the Lotus-cookie crust and together make an amazing key lime pie. All vegan!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ingredients (serves twelve):

Crust:

  • pack vegan biscuits. I used Lotus Biscoff biscuits because it has this ginger-cookie flavour which is the best.
  • 120 gram vegan butter, melted. 
  • 3 tablespoons coconut oil

Filling:

  • 1 tin coconut milk
  • Zest of 2 limes (unwaxed)
  • Juice of 2 limes
  • 220 ml almond milk
  • 6 tablespoons cornstarch
  • 6 tablespoons icing sugar

Optional, to garnish:

  • coconut flakes
  • lime zest

Cooking method:

Preheat the oven at 180°C. Start with the crust. Put the biscuits in the food processor. Slowly add the melted butter. Finally add the coconut oil. Take the mixture and put it in a greased, round baking tray, preferably with a loose bottom. Press evenly until it covers the entire tray. Put the tray in the middle of the over for about 12 minutes.

 

Warm the tin of coconut milk over a low heat in a saucepan. Add the juice and zest of 2 limes. Let it warm up over a very low heat, to let the flavours infuse gradually. In the meantime, mix the almond milk with the icing sugar in a container. Add the cornstarch and whisk it together until smooth. Add it to the saucepan and stir while it warms up. The cornstarch will thicken the mixture as it warms. Turn the heat off when it has reached the desired thickness.

 

Take the baking tray out of the oven. Add the mixture to the tray. Cover it with cling film, directly over the filling. Leave it to set in the fridge for at least 3 hours. Garnish with lime zest or coconut flakes. Enjoy!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sources:

  • Poore, J., Nemecek, T. (2018) Reducing food’s environmental impacts through producers and consumers. Science  01 Jun 2018: Vol. 360, Issue 6392, pp. 987-992.
  • https://www.aboutnuts.com/nl/encyclopedie/hazelnuts/. Retrieved at 02/04/2019